The former federal state, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, proclaimed by the Constitution on , is based on the pluralistic, parliamentary democracy, committed to the rule of law, free market economy, freedom of public activities, social justice, human rights, equality and welfare of all citizens.
This is a tectonically active region notable for earthquakes.
To the east the Carpathians are nearly as high; one peak in the Iron Gate (Ðerdap) gorge of the Danube River, the most spectacular such feature in Europe.
For a distance of 60 miles (100 km), the Danube flows across the Carpathian range, its bed dropping 90 feet (30 metres).
The gorge consists of four narrow constrictions connected by three basins.
Since the establishment of the Constitution of the former federation (from 1992), there have been a lot of changes in the area of the legislation (constitutional, political, economic), as well as in the area of the real relations between the political forces in the government’s institutions.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the constitution of the new state is still under construction) is inspired by well known European constitutions, such as the constitutions of France and Germany, and it contains both elements of the federation and confederation structure (at the moment, the parliament is working on the draft of a new constitution).Before the flooding that followed completion of the joint Yugoslav-Romanian Ðerdap hydroelectric dam in 1972, rocky outcrops confined the river at one point to a width of only 300 feet (90 metres).Upstream, in the Vojvodina plains, the Danube attains widths of up to 2 miles (3 km) and depths of 45 feet (14 metres) or more.Serbia was the dominant part in this multiethnic union, though after World War II the nonaligned communist government of Josip Broz Tito accorded some measure of autonomy to the constituent republics and attempted to balance contending interests by dividing national administrative responsibilities (e.g., for intelligence and defense) along ethnic lines.After Tito’s death in 1980 and the collapse of communism in eastern Europe over the course of the following decade, resurgent nationalism reopened old rifts in Yugoslav society.In 2003, after the ratification of the pact by the parliaments of Serbia, Montenegro, and Yugoslavia, the renamed Serbia and Montenegro replaced Yugoslavia on the European map.